Occasional Papers

AIEA Occasional Papers are essays or reports that inform the AIEA membership and the larger international education community about subjects relevant to the internationalization of higher education. If there are particular topics you'd like to see represented here, please email [email protected]. If you are interested in submitting an Occasional Paper, please refer to the Occasional Paper Guidelines.

International Education and Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: A Partnership for Equity and Social Justice
Hilary Landorf, Ph.D., Florida International University; Hilary Kahn, Ph.D., Indiana University; Jolynn Shoemaker, J.D., University of California Davis
Spring 2022

While many institutions of higher education recognize that the field of international education must be more diverse, equitable, and inclusive, and know there is much to be gained by institutional cooperation between the fields of international education and diversity, equity, and inclusion, the challenge is in how to do this. In order to know how to act, the authors contend that international education units must first undergo a process of deep self-reflection and research to uncover and acknowledge history and unconscious biases on the part of its leaders and staff members, and inequities in the unit’s policies and practices before identifying relevant and realistic opportunities for collaboration. In this article, the authors outline what this process involves and describe how international education and diversity, equity, and inclusion units at two large public research universities devised successful inclusive programs that were best suited to their respective contexts and ensured that these programs were collaborative efforts between the two units.

The Benefits of International Students to the Diversity Paradigm
Janice Kim, University of Louisville
Spring 2022

This paper examines international student mobility as a necessary component for global initiatives and diversity agendas. The importance of increasing the profile of the international communities on college campuses and exploring the benefits of internationalization must envelope plans and activities of amalgamating international students in global learning and activities to further understand ways in advancing diversity engagement. Therefore, recommendations to international leaders and campus stakeholders suggest parsing out details on actively engaging international students as a cultural resource to discussion, learning activities, and other meaningful opportunities.

Catalysts of Change: Entrepreneurial Problem-Solving for Unscripted Futures
Natalie Cruz, Old Dominion University; Rosalind Raby, California State University – Northridge; Chris Glass, Old Dominion University; Heidi Fischer, Old Dominion University
Fall 2020

This occasional paper explores how SIOs engage in entrepreneurial problem-solving to create viable, productive, and sustainable initiatives that advance internationalization. It identifies major trends in global higher education and examines the role of entrepreneurial problem-solving for today’s SIOs. The paper also explores different institutional contexts from a research study of 34 SIOs from a variety of four-year HEIs and community colleges across the United States. Themes discussed include how institutional context impacts revenue-generating expectations, SIOs as creators and risk takers, the degrees of institutional risk-taking, and strategies for success, considering the global situation and their institutional context. Several future directions and takeaways are offered based on the SIO interviews and global trends. NAFSA’s Teaching, Learning, and Scholarship Knowledge Community has produced an infographic summarizing the paper’s findings.

Internationalization at U.S. Public Comprehensive Universities: Three Case Studies
Jermain Griffin, American University; Craig T. Cobane, Western Kentucky University; Mark Schaub, Grand Valley State University; and Brian N. Stiegler, Salisbury University
Fall 2018

This paper highlights the efforts of U.S. public comprehensive universities to help advance higher education internationalization. Known in part for their legacy as early teacher’s colleges or technical colleges, public comprehensive universities have unique institutional missions that are steep in local, historical ties to their respective communities. This paper draws from three cases of public comprehensives in Kentucky, Maryland and Michigan, highlighting their trajectories to make internationalization central to the institutional mission. This is a needed contribution to a generally underemphasized segment of U.S. higher education. The authors contend that this paper, an extension of a related panel at the 2018 AIEA Annual Conference, is part of the beginnings of necessary conversation about the role of public comprehensive universities to advance U.S. higher education internationalization in such a politically charged and complicated time in the country.

Today's Women Leaders in International Education 
Helen Gaudette, Fashion Institute of Technology; Clare Overmann, Institute of International Education; Joanna Regulska, University of California Davis; Mrinmoyee Bhattacharya, Dickinson College 
March 2018 

The aim of this article is to interrogate the role of gender in differential experiences of leaders in higher education. Though international education is increasingly diverse, there exists a lack of research on how women leaders negotiate and respond to the challenges of international higher education. This article responds to the need for understanding international education through the voices of women leaders. Drawing from the data collected, we argue that gender bias, glass ceilings, and discrimination are impediments that structure women’s experiences in international education. Our data set comprised of a survey with 449 responses from women who hold leadership positions in international higher education at different educational institutions around the world. The institutional and structural barriers faced by women leaders not only limit women leaders’ growth within different institutions, but are also important roadblocks in the path of internationalization and globalization of higher education. This paper details the multiple structural inequities reported by women leaders in higher education and recommends action items that will help remove these barriers. It also highlights the positive correlation between increasing diversification and internationalization of the field. We argue that recruitment, retention, and growth of more women leaders are necessary steps toward building global campus and internationalized curriculum.

Strategic Planning for Internationalization in Higher Education
Elizabeth Brewer, Beloit College; Harvey Charles, Northern Arizona University; and Adelaide Ferguson,  Independent Consultant; contributions from Susan Carvalho, University of Kentucky; and  Joanna Regulska, Rutgers,The State University of New Jersey
February 2015

Strategic planning has gained increased importance in higher education, and is emerging as an important component of internationalization.  This occasional paper begins with a review of the history of strategic planning and its application to higher education, before proposing 12 principles for strategic planning related to internationalization.  Three case studies illustrate the principles in practice. Although focused on internationalization within the U.S. context, the paper should have lessons for institutions beyond the U.S.

International Education Self-Studies and External Reviews
Elizabeth Brewer, Beloit College and Joseph Brockington, Kalamazoo College 
October 2013

The purpose of this occasional paper is to provide guidance to Senior International Officers (SIOs) in preparing reviews of internationalization programs through a brief discussion of accreditation in the U.S. and subsequent discussions of self-studies and external reviews. The paper is based on the premise that self-studies and external reviews are valuable tools for measuring and advancing the value of international education in higher education, and for making this value visible to individual institutions, to higher education more broadly, and to the public.

Social Media in International Student Recruitment
Rahul Choudaha, Director of Research and Strategic Development, World Education Services
March 2013

Universities are increasingly utilizing social media as an important tool in international student recruitment. This occasional paper covers both the primary reasons why institutions are taking this route, how they are using it in the international context (including links to many varied examples), as well as widespread challenges.

The Role of Governing Boards in Campus Globalization
Strategic Consulting - The Wyly/Kellogg International Group
Fall 2011

Although campus globalization is an increasingly important strategic issue in American higher education, governing boards rarely take up this topic, despite the considerable international experience of many board members.  Further, SIOs rarely have opportunities to interact directly with governing boards.  This occasional paper  therefore discusses these problems and their causes, and suggests strategies SIOs can use to help the governing boards of their institutions become more engaged with internationalization.

Third-Party Program Providers and Education Abroad: Partner or Competitor?
John Heyl, CEA Study Abroad
Spring 2011

An estimated 25% of U.S. study abroad students participate in programs organized all or in part by “providers,” a percentage that is likely to grow according to the author. The term “provider” is defined, and the relationship of providers to host and sending universities discussed. Questions of cost and quality assurance are deemed unlikely to diminish the trend toward increased use of provider programs.

The Value of International Internships in Global Workforce Development
Jennifer Malerich, Arizona State University

International internships are becoming a highly sought commodity by students who feel these provide opportunities to gain skills not possible in traditional study abroad programs. Prospective employers, however, do not always view international internships positively.  Students must, therefore, be able to articulate what they learned to potential employers, a skill that can be learned when the internship is followed by a credit-bearing activity upon return to campus.  Multiple data tables illustrate the paper.

Internationalization and Title VI: New Challenges
Ann Imlah Schneider, International Education Consultant

This occasional paper offers an overview of the major challenges that have been met by the Title VI legislation as it has evolved over the past fifty years. It then enumerates current and anticipated challenges as of February 2010 for Title VI specifically and, more generally, for efforts to inject more international content into the curricula of education in the United States.

Whither Bologna?
Paul L. Gaston, Kent State University
Spring 2009

As an important development in international higher education, as well as a potential model for other world regions, the Bologna Process intended to harmonize European higher education bears close and ongoing scrutiny. This occasional paper  reviews both powerful accomplishments to date (the “three-cycle” degree system, ECTS, emphasis on life-long learning and a “social dimension”), as well as potential “pot holes” in the road to a European Higher Education Area. Challenges identified include the growing number of signatory states, lack of funding or formal infrastructure for the process itself, as well as competing interests.

Global Learning through Partnered Inquiry
Rebecca Hovey, SIT/World Learning
June 2009

This occasional paper discusses the potential role of partnered inquiry in creating globally engaged colleges and universities that prepare students for global citizenship, that is, citizen diplomacy.  Such diplomacy acknowledges the multiple affiliations of students and faculty members, and also their responsibilities to home and host communities.  The brief concludes with a discussion of a pedagogical model involving community partnerships, collaborative inquiry, hands-on experience, and integrative projects.

Setting up an International Office: Lessons Learned
Joel Harrington, Vanderbilt University; Dawn Turton, Vanderbilt University
June 2009

This occasional paper shares a frank and detailed review of the first few years of the Vanderbilt International Office, created in 2006. Short descriptions of various processes and key activity areas such as increasing visibility, building a team, developing institutional partnerships, are each followed by important “lessons learned” that utilize the value of hindsight for the benefit of SIOs in similar positions.

Study Abroad for Scientists: Increasing Disciplinary Diversity in Programming Abroad
Preetha Ram and Phillip Wainwright, Emory University

Science majors are faced with a paradox—heavy course loads and tight schedules seem to preclude study abroad, however, upon graduation, science majors may be ill-prepared for a highly international workforce. This occasional paper highlights how science majors, including pre-med students, can find multiple benefits from participation in study abroad programs and examines both real and imagined obstacles universities face in the development of successful study abroad programs for science majors.

Ecotourism as an Educational Experience
David Urias; AnnaLisa Russo, Drexel University

Building upon close to a century of cooperative education programs, Drexel University is expanding learning opportunities abroad at the graduate level to encourage reflective experiential learning. Ecotourism allows graduate students to work with local communities to develop sustainable responsible tourism. This occasional paper begins with a theoretical background for developing such opportunities and concludes with a student account of condor conservation in Peru.

Readings for the First Annual AIEA Global Dialogue: Academic Cooperation Across Borders and Continents - Washington, DC: